The Future of the Professions
The Future of the Professions

The Future of the Professions

Table of Contents

In what we term a ‘print-based industrial society’, the professions have played a central role in the sharing of expertise. They have been the main channel through which individuals and organizations have gained access to certain kinds of knowledge and experience. However, in a ‘technology-based Internet society’, we predict that increasingly capable machines, operating on their own or with non-specialist users, will take on many of the tasks that have been the historic preserve of the professions. We anticipate an ‘incremental transformation’ in the way that we produce and distribute expertise in society. This will lead eventually to a dismantling of the traditional professions. (Location 268)

Note: Professionals have interpreted knowledge in books and proovided this to other. In the future computers will store this knowledge and provide it to others

professions, in analogous ways, are a solution to the same problem—that none of us has sufficient specialist knowledge to cope with all of our daily challenges. Human beings have limited understanding, and so we look to doctors, teachers, lawyers, and other professionals because they have expertise that we need to make progress in life. Professionals have knowledge, experience, skills, and know-how that those they help do not. (Location 294)

Tags: professions

Note: .professions professionals hold deep knowledge in a given topic. Thosenthey help do not have this knowlesge

Part I Change

1 The Grand Bargain

The legal services market in the United Kingdom, for example, is the largest in Europe, and is responsible for over one-quarter of the total value of the European market. (Location 368)

Tags: legal, uk

Note: .uk .legal the uk legal services market makes 25% of the european market

This is well illustrated by the joke about the elderly Jewish mother at the seaside with her grown-up son who is struggling in the water; she seeks help by shouting: ‘My son, the doctor, is drowning!’ (Location 383)

Tags: doctor

Note: .doctor

By analogy, we suggest that members of today’s professions, to varying degrees, share four overlapping similarities: (1) they have specialist knowledge; (2) their admission depends on credentials; (3) their activities are regulated; and (4) they are bound by a common set of values. (Location 466)

Tags: regulation, professions

Note: .professions sppeciallist knowledge,regulated, admission depends on credengtial

First of all, might there be entirely new ways of organizing professional work, ways that are more affordable, more accessible, and perhaps more conducive to an increase in quality than the traditional approach? We believe that, in a technology-based Internet society, there must be scope for making at least some of the knowledge and experience of experts available on a different basis. And much of this book is devoted to introducing alternatives to the current set-up. (Location 796)

Note: Make expert knowledge more readily available

to what extent do we actually trust professionals to admit that their services could be delivered differently, or that some of their work could responsibly be passed along to non-professionals? (Location 805)

Note: Of course many professionals will say their work cant be done in another way

our professions are failing in six ways: economically, technologically, psychologically, morally, qualitatively, and in terms of their inscrutability. (Location 817)

most people and organizations cannot afford the services of first-rate professionals; and most economies are struggling to sustain most of their professional services, including schools, court systems, and health services. (Location 821)

Note: Top rate professional services are only acessed by the rich

Our second objection to the professions under the grand bargain is that, by and large, the arrangement presupposes a model of professional work, especially advisory work, that rests on increasingly antiquated techniques for creating and sharing knowledge. (Location 845)

Note: Old techniques for creating and sharing knowledge

A professional will claim that a new system or method cannot solve x or y, where x and y are the most difficult of problems in their fields. Rather than conceding that many everyday challenges can indeed be met in new ways, the argument concentrates on the atypical. It disconcerts by focusing on extreme examples rather than everyday activity. This is misleading, and ought to be challenged. (Location 1038)

Note: When faced with a new tool or system people often point to uncommon edge cases which camt be resolved

2 From the Vanguard

In England, for example, long-term care needs for illnesses like cancer, diabetes, and dementia make up 70 per cent of health and social spending. (Location 1309)

Tags: healthcare

Note: .healthcare long term ilnesses acount for 70% of health spending

Half of US doctors use the app known as Epocrates, a digital drug-reference resource that computerizes the task of finding out how different drugs interact. This task was once a time-consuming, often inconclusive piece of excavation from a 2,500-page drug-reference manual, known as the Physicians Desk Reference.15 (Location 1343)

Tags: doctors

Note: .doctors use an app to check drug interactions

The Lollards, for example, an English group trying to reform Christianity from the fourteenth century, were met by thunderous opposition from the clergy (and with violence by others) when they tried to translate the Bible into English (at the time only available in Latin), so that more people could read it. The resistance was so frenzied, as the historian Jonathan Rose notes, in large part ‘because a vernacular Bible threatened to break a clerical monopoly on knowledge, and throw scriptural interpretation open to artisans’.95 Clerics worried about the future of their jobs in the event that their communities became self-enlightened. (Location 1571)

Tags: church, priests

Note: .priests .church the church was against the translation of the bible.from latin to english. They were worried that theiir role would be diminoshed

Axiom led the way here, launching in 2000.140 Since then, various law firms have followed suit, offering access, largely to their alumni, on a contract basis—for example, Berwin Leighton Paisner’s ‘Lawyers on Demand’ and Pinsent Masons’ ‘Vario’. (Location 1699)

Tags: gc, lmc

Note: .lmc .gc lawers on demand

Online legal communities are emerging. Legal OnRamp165 originally led the way here for major law firms and their clients, while non-lawyers too are beginning to contribute, sharing their practical experiences of resolving legal problems in what we call ‘communities of legal experience’. (Location 1756)

Tags: stackoverflow

Note: .stackoverflow this sounds a little stackkoverflow for law

Eden McCallum, Business Talent Group, and Cast Professionals are able to build more formal, ad hoc teams for clients from online networks of vetted freelance consultants. (Location 1952)

Note: Freelance consulting teams

Deloitte, for instance, provides expats abroad with computerized advice on where they can and cannot travel to minimize their tax burden, based on GPS data from their mobiles. (Location 2086)

the audit of the world’s largest corporations is dominated by the ‘Big Four’ (Deloitte, KPMG, EY, and PwC). In 2013 in the United Kingdom, for example, these four firms audited 98 per cent of the FTSE 100, 96 per cent of the FTSE 250, and 78.8 per cent of the entire UK market.269 None of the Big Four has yet tried to disrupt the others by undertaking audit in radically new ways. (Location 2105)

Tags: big4, audit

Note: .audit .big4

statutory auditors are tasked with reviewing financial statements to assure that they are an accurate, complete, and fair reflection of a company’s actual trading activity. Simply put, auditors confirm (or not) that a company is telling the truth in its published accounts. For the audit, the end user is the investor whose decisions are influenced by audit opinions. (Location 2112)

Tags: audit

Note: .audit auditors confirm of a companies acxounts are accuract

3 Patterns across the Professions (Location 3194)

The end of the professional era is characterized by four trends: the move from bespoke service; the bypassing of traditional gatekeepers; a shift from a reactive to a proactive approach to professional work; and the more-for-less challenge. (Location 3305)

Whether the preferred model is offshoring or outsourcing, what is happening here is a form of labour arbitrage, in that work moves to countries where the wages are lower. And as different countries step forward offering yet further reductions in labour costs, then the work is likely to be reallocated there so long as the required level of quality can be maintained. (Location 3680)

On this account, a shroud of mystery is thrown over certain institutions, protecting them from challenge and change. And those who mystify use language, custom, clothing, and rhetoric as the tools of their trade. (Location 4010)

Tags: professions

Note: .professions mystifing the professions

Part II Theory

4 Information and Technology

societies have been dependent, respectively, on periods dominated by orality, script, print, and information technology. (Location 4125)

Tags: writing, recording

Note: .recording .writing